20 мая 1912, — 22 января 1984
Бельгийский ученый, философ, логик, профессор, доктор права (1934), доктор философии и математики (1938).
Х.Перельман. Новая риторика. Трактат об аргументации.
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The New Rhetoric A Treatise on Argumentation
CH. PERELMAN and L. OLBRECHTS-TYTECA
On the occasion of the publication of the American edition of The New Rhetoric, I would like to extend my warmest thanks to those in the United States who have helped me make my ideas known here or who have facilitated the appearance of this book. I am grateful to Professor Richard P. McKeon of the University of Chicago, who in 1951 recommended to Ethics our first article to appear in America, “Act and Person in Argument.” Mr. Henry W. Johnstone, Jr., was the first person to draw the attention of the American public to our work through his critical article published in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research in 1954. It was through him and Professor Robert T. Oliver, past president of the American Speech Association, that I received a joint invitation from the Departments of Philosophy and Speech at Pennsylvania State University, where I gave a seminar on “The Philosophical Foundation of Argumentation.” Thanks to Professor Oliver, I was able to present my ideas at an annual meeting of the American Speech Association at Denver in 1963. These efforts at collaboration between philosophers and specialists in the techniques of speech and communication were continued in 1964 through a colloquium at Pennsylvania State University on the theme “Philosophy and Rhetoric,” and have culminated in the appearance of a new review, Philosophy and Rhetoric, in 1968, under the editorship of Henry W. Johnstone, Carroll C. Arnold, and Thomas Olbricht. I also wish to thank those colleagues who have been kind enough to invite me to present my ideas at the University of Chicago, Cornell University, Harvard University, and the University of Pennsylvania. The invitation which I received from Carl J. Friedrich, head of the Department of Political Science at Harvard, was preceded by a generous review which he had published in 1962 in the Natural Law Forum. It was through him that I first met the editor of this review,
VI THE NEW RHETORIC
Professor John T. Noonan, Jr., presently at Berkeley, who published certain of my articles and recommended my work to the University of Notre Dame Press. I wish to thank the director of that press, Miss Emily Schossberger, for taking the risks involved in bringing out a work which is compactly written and demands close study from the very outset. Finally, my sincere thanks go to the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions at Santa Barbara. Mr. John Wilkinson, who is its director of studies on the theme “The Civilization of Dialogue,” has enthusiastically propagated my ideas and has also translated part of the present treatise. But I know that without President Robert M. Hutchins, who supported my efforts and granted a generous subvention for translation, this volume would not have seen the light of day. I wish to thank him sincerely for his support and help.
THE FRAMEWORK OF ARGUMENTATION 11
§ 1. Demonstration and Argumentation 13 2. The Contact of Minds 14 3. The Speaker and His Audience 17 4. The Audience as a Construction of the Speaker 19 5. Adaptation of the Speaker to the Audience 23 6. Persuading and Convincing 26 7. The Universal Audience 31 8. Argumentation Before a Single Hearer 35 9. Self-Deliberating 40 10. The Effects of Argumentation 45 11. The Epidictic Genre 47 12. Education and Propaganda 51 13. Argumentation and Violence 54 14. Argumentation and Commitment 59
THE STARTING POINT OF ARGUMENT 63
I. Agreement 65
§ 15. The Premises of Argumentation 65 16. Facts and Truths 67 17. Presumptions 70 18. Values 74
V III THE NEW RHETORIC
19. Abstract Values and Concrete Values 77 20. Hierarchies • 80 21. Loci 83 22. Loci of Quantity 85 23. Loci of Quality 89 24. Other Loci 93 25. Use and Systematization of Loci; Classical Outlook and Romantic Outlook 95 26. Agreements of Certain Special Audiences 99 27. Agreements Particular to Each Discussion 104 28. Argumentation ad Hominem and Beggingt he Question 110
II. The Choice of Data and Their Adaptation for Argumentative Purposes 115
§ 29. Selection of Data and Presence 115 30. The Interpretation of Data 120 31. The Interpretation of the Discourse and Its Problems 123 32. Choice of Qualifiers 126 33. On the Use of Notions 130 34. Clarification and Obscuration of Notions 133 35. Argumentative Usage and Plasticity of Notions 138
III. Presentation of Data and Form of the Discourse 142
§ 36. Content and Form of the Discourse 142 37. Technical Problems in the Presentation of Data 143 38. Verbal Forms and Argumentation 149 39. Modalities in the Expression of Thought 154 40. Form of the Discourse and Communion with the Audience 163 41. Rhetorical Figures and Argumentation 167 42. Figures of Choice, Presence, and Communion 171 43. Status and Presentation of the Elements of the Argumentation 179